Lung cancer surgery (Thoracotomy)

Lung cancer surgery

Lung cancer surgery is necessary for the lungs that suffer from malignant tumors, resulting from the injury of the lungs to harmful cells that spoil their functions.

Surgery is considered a stage in the treatment of lung cancer, and lung cancer surgery is based on the size of the existing tumor.

According to the stage it has reached the disease, where a portion of the lung or an entire lobe of the lung may be removed, which is affected by the presence of the tumor.

What is the definition of Lung?

  • It is the organ responsible for breathing in the body. It contains many cysts that contain tissues and are found inside the chest cage above the diaphragm. As it is known that the size of the right lung is larger than the left. Still, it is short because the liver is located below it. But the left lung is smaller because the heart is next to it.
  • The right lung consists of three lobes, and each lobe is a balloon filled with air. And its tissues resemble a sponge, and the left lung is divided into two lobes only.

Lung cancer symptoms

The symptoms of Lung cancer are many, and they can deceive the patient. But the doctor's diagnosis is the key in this matter. Such as:

  • Sudden weight loss.
  • Significant loss of appetite.
  • One of the symptoms of Lung cancer is severe chest pain unprecedented before.
  • The patient feels wheezing.
  • A persistent cough with phlegm.
  • Blood sputum.
  • Significant symptoms of Lung cancer are hoarseness.
  • Feeling of laziness, fatigue, general exhaustion, and the inability to engage in healthy activities.
  • Recurrent bronchitis.
  • Pneumonia frequently and does not fix any usual treatments.
  • Lung cancer surgery interferes if the following symptoms appear, such as lymph nodes.
  • Spine and bone problems.
  • Liver problems develop, and the doctor verifies this by yellowing eyes and skin.
  • Symptoms of Lung cancer include a noticeable headache with an imbalance, dizziness, and lightheadedness.
  • The effect of Lung cancer on facial nerves and pronounced eyelids is evident in Horner's Syndrome.
  • Lung cancer surgery helps remove all previous symptoms, including pressure on the veins that carry blood, and this causes swelling of the face, neck, arms, and upper chest area.

Causes of lung cancer symptoms


  • Most of the Lung cancer cases were caused by smoking, as we can say that exposure to secondhand smoke increases the incidence of Lung cancer.
  • Exposure to radon gas breathing and this problem is found in America more than in other countries, and among the most common causes in the past periods, which is considered one of the reasons that lead to Lung cancer surgery.
  • Many harmful substances breathe, such as chromium, nickel, and the breath of petroleum products for those working in oil fields. Those who work in uranium fields are exposed to uranium breathing.

Genetic factor

  • Genetic factors can play a significant role in some cases, and people with AIDS are at risk of developing lung cancer. One of the most potent causes of Lung cancer symptoms is tuberculosis or some other lung disease.

Symptoms of benign lung cancer

  • First of all, we must know that benign lung cancer in most cases does not appear except by chance; this is done by way of diagnosis for other diseases, and the doctor requests a CT scan of the lungs.
  • A symptom of benign Lung cancer is lung sounds.
  • Noticeably persistent cough.
  • Sputum with blood, or so-called hemoptysis.
  • A symptom of benign Lung cancer is a recurrence of lung infections.
  • Lung volume shrinkage due to tumor control of the lung.
  • Difficulty breathing in general.

L.C. Early Symptoms

  • Persistent and marked cough.
  • Blood in the mucus from the mouth.
  • Symptoms of early Lung cancer include chest pain when breathing, coughing, or speaking.
  • Hoarseness and weak voice.
  • General weakness with the inability to engage in daily activities.
  • Symptoms of early Lung cancer include pneumonia or bronchitis.
  • Weight loss, due to many changes that occur in the body, such as changes in hormones, and changes in immune functions in the body.
  • Difficulty swallowing often.

Lung Cancer Stages

It begins with small cell cancer: It is the first stage of Lung cancer, and the first step in it is called the limited stage, the stage in which the tumor is in one lung with lymph nodes, and appears next to the chest.

In the second step of this stage, cancer has appeared in the entire lungs, with the whole lymph nodes, with the entire chest area.

The second stage of Lung cancer, called non-small cell cancer, and at this stage, Lung cancer surgery is the best solution, which consists of four other stages states as follows:

  • The first stage is the tumor being concentrated in the lung and not excreted by any other organ in the body.
  • The second stage: Cancer is ultimately transmitted to the lymph nodes.
  • The third stage moves from the lung and lymph glands to the entire chest area and reaches other glands, reaching the neck bone and the top of the collarbone.
  • The fourth stage: This known and determined by spreading to the lungs and the areas surrounding them.
  • Finally, the wide stage of Lung cancer, and here the spread reaches all parts of the lung, as well as the opposite lung and bone marrow.

Diagnosing the cancer

  • Diagnosing lung cancer has several methods, including Lung CT, which detects whether the lung tissue is in good condition or not. This technique is also used to make sure the lungs are free of cancer cells after the end of the treatment phase. Lung cancer can also be diagnosed by taking A sample of the affected part and examination.
  • And one of the methods used in the diagnosis of bronchoscopy is to enter a thin band in the bronchial tubes that contain a small camera that detects the presence of infected places in the lungs. Lung cancer is diagnosed in many cases, surgically, as a sample, is taken through surgery and examined. The doctor also takes a sample of sputum (phlegm cytology) and checks it in the laboratory, and this is a convenient way to detect the presence of Lung cancer.
  • The doctor uses some other methods to detect and diagnose Lung cancer and the extent of its spread in other parts of the body.

A clinical examination

  • during which the doctor uses the stethoscope and the measurement of pressure and knowledge of the heartbeat extent, asks the patient to have a comprehensive blood test. A blood sample taken to do an examination Comprehensive, through which the ratio of platelets, white and red blood cells, and plasma indicated. X-rays used in the diagnosis of lung cancer, which is radiography that gives the doctor a preliminary picture of the lungs and the extent of disease spread in them. In addition to a computed tomography CT, where Help the doctor examine the lymph nodes and see if the disease has spread and reached any other organ of the body.
  • Diagnosing Lung cancer by examining the lung function reveals the extent of the lung's ability to perform its functions. The doctor can request MRI rays before surgery, where it shows the extent of the tumor's development and its spread in the chest.
  • Diagnosis of lung cancer by positron emission tomography (CT): its function is to identify all details in the body from the brain and diagnose Lung cancer by US ultrasound, which helps examine the lungs to determine the amount of fluid accumulated around them.

Who has to do regular lung cancer screening so that he can check on his health?

Smokers and alcohol drinkers must regularly check to check their lungs' health and those over the age of 55 to 80 years.

The importance of diagnosing Lung cancer is that it works to save the patient further, and helps the doctor control the spread of cancer cells to preserve the lung and not to resort to Lung cancer surgery.

And always remember that early diagnosis protects the rest of the body from this tumor.


  • Treating Lung cancer with chemotherapy works to control and reduce cancer cells, and works more on divisible cells, which helps to reduce and treat them. Chemotherapy works to control the cancer cells that have spread in many different areas of the body, which considered an ideal solution. However, there are some side effects, and it works in many cases. The patient needs chemotherapy for courses, often from 4 to 6 courses as the sessions are consecutive days, and then rest for consecutive days. These sessions continue in a period of 4 to 6 months.
  • Some side effects are resulting from the treatment of Lung cancer with chemotherapy, such as feeling thirsty, hair loss, the appearance of ulcers in the mouth, and a feeling of desire to vomit, and the immune system, in general, weakens along with the feeling of laziness and the inability to exercise daily activity. There is also Lung cancer treatment Radio Therapy, high-energy radiation that contributes to the control of cancer cells. Radiation therapy for Lung cancer contributes significantly to controlling and reducing the size of the tumor in the lung before surgery for Lung cancer. It is more suitable for cancer in one area and did not spread in many other areas of the body.
  • Stem cell lung cancer treatment: It is an immune stimulant to attack cancer because cancer cells can work in a way that causes the immune system not to attack them or work on them. But this type of treatment used for those who have advanced Lung cancer, and before having Lung cancer surgery. But there are some of the side effects resulting from the treatment of lung cancer cells Stems, such as frequent diarrhea, pain, joint swelling, laziness and fatigue, and redness and dryness in the skin.

Lung cancer surgery

Lung cancer surgery is the removal of a tumor in the lung. Still, it may end up removing a large lobe of the lung to eliminate the cancerous cells until the patient has complied with recovery.

Pre-lung cancer surgery

  • Initially, it is necessary to confirm the presence of a malignant tumor in the lung. It done by presenting the case at the beginning of an oncologist who specializes in Lung cancer. The case presented to the radiotherapy doctor, and then the chest surgeon.
  • Lung cancer surgery requires the patient to be able to follow the doctors' instructions. The first thing is to stop smoking and drink alcohol and any medications that can cause blood clotting. You should also make sure that there are no other symptoms in any area of ​​the body that could result from Lung cancer. Before Lung cancer surgery, the doctor must take a full report on the patient's health and any medications he takes for any other symptoms. There are some tests that the doctor must request from the patient before the Lung cancer surgery, as he performs a lung examination so that he can know whether the lung contains healthy tissue that can remain after the surgery or not. Several tests performed on the heart to ensure that the heart's functions are in good condition.

Causes for the surgery

  • It is necessary to repair the air leaks that occur in the lung.
  • It is necessary to eradicate the scar tissue that occurred in the lung.
  • Lung cancer surgery done to find out the extent of the tumor in the lung at any stage. And this helps physicians determine the type of treatment required, whether chemically or radiologically.
  • The doctor can remove a small part of the lung that contains the tumor if the rest of the lung is intact, and there is no damage.
  • Lung cancer surgery may require removing part of the damaged lung.

The nature of follow-up after lung cancer surgery

After surgery, you will find a small tube connected to the place of operation to empty the excess fluid and air. Lung cancer surgery also requires the patient to stay with a family member or stay in a hospital under the supervision of the nurses. Do it after recovering from Lung cancer surgery. The patient also refuses to drive the car for up to a month or a month and a half, and in some cases. It is possible to undergo physical therapy sessions.

Success factors for lung cancer surgery

The success rate of Lung cancer surgery depends on the patient's age and health condition. As it helps determine the success rate. The stage of access to the disease is also a substantial factor in the success of Lung cancer surgery in terms of proportion.

Lung cancer and age

Surgery performed for people over 18 years of age, and if the patient reaches 60 years old here. The doctor treats the patient with extreme caution in Lung cancer surgery. Because the state of health and physical ability to endure is weak; especially if the patient has chronic diseases, such as pressure or diabetes.

Lung cancer prevention

Preventing Lung cancer is not difficult, as it is necessary, as follows:

  • Avoid alcoholic drinks.
  • Quit Smoking.
  • The prevention of Lung cancer consists of exercising regularly.
  • Be sure to eat healthy foods, including vegetables and fruits.
  • Green tea helps prevent many diseases, especially cancer because it contains antioxidants.
  • Prevention of lung cancer through periodic examination.
  • Negative smoking must avoided. Because it is a higher risk, it may develop and reach the stage of Lung cancer surgery.

Spine and bone problems

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