Kidney transplant

Kidney transplant

Kidney transplant is a significant surgical procedure to save the lives of people who suffer from severe kidney failure. The primary function of the kidneys is to purify the body of excess toxins.

Toxins and harmful fluids in the body aren't discharged to kidney failure at work, leading to kidney failure, hence the need for a kidney transplant.

Reasons for a kidney transplant

  • Having diabetes.
  • Chronic uncontrollable high blood pressure.
  • Chronic glomerulonephritis.
  • Multiple polycystic kidney diseases.
  • Infection with kidney diseases in the final stage.

Symptoms felt by the kidney patient

The kidney patient feels some of the symptoms that may indicate the patient's need for a kidney transplant, and these symptoms include the following:

  • Feeling of constant fatigue and mental and physical fatigue.
  • Having trouble breathing.
  • Having impotence.
  • Lack of appetite and unwillingness to eat.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Suffering from anemia or high blood pressure with infections in the peripheral nerves.

Stages of kidney failure

The patient suffers from a failure of the kidneys in several stages. In the first stage, a weakening of the kidneys occurs with the appearance of a few symptoms. In the second and third stages, the patient needs more care to reduce the dysfunction, while in the fourth and fifth stages, the patient needs constant dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Kidney transplant

Many people ask what the process of kidney transplant is. The kidney transplant performed by replacing the damaged kidney with a new one from a living or deceased donor, as the new kidney connected through the blood vessels in the abdomen while ensuring blood flow in the blood vessels. The new ureter connected to the bladder, and the old kidney is not disposed of unless the doctor finds the need for it.

Conditions for kidney donation

Some conditions must be met in the person who wants to donate the kidney, and the terms for donating the kidney include the following:

  • The person must be from the patient's relatives or close friends.
  • Those kidneys work correctly, so donating one kidney will not affect the work of the other college.
  • To undergo some medical examinations to ensure the tissues and blood's conformity to both the donor and the recipient.
  • The donor does not have cancer or HIV.

Recipient conditions of the kidney

Some conditions must be met by the person who wants to perform a kidney transplant, and they are:

  • The patient has terminal renal failure.
  • That the patient does not have difficult-to-control cancer diseases or have AIDS.
  • The patient must not have kidney failure or have HIV infection.

Contraindications to the kidney transplant

Kidney transplantation can be one of the dangerous operations that not all cases can perform, as it poses a danger to these cases, represented in the following:

  • Heart patients with severe heart muscle weakness or who have severe blockages in the arteries of the heart.
  • People were suffering from bacterial or viral infections.
  • People with cancer or people who have recovered from cancer and are in the recovery phase.
  • Psychiatric patients who are difficult to control.
  • Addicts.
  • People who suffer from any immune disease may lead to the failure of the transplanted kidneys.

Types of kidney transplant

  • A kidney transplant from a live donor
  • In addition, a kidney transplant from a living person is the process in which a kidney is removed from a living donor so that its kidneys are functioning efficiently to donate one to the injured person. A kidney transplant from a living person is often associated with the person's knowledge, such as family members, a close friend, or those with genetic inheritance.
  • The recipient and the donor are subject to evaluation to determine if the kidney is appropriate, as the blood types and tissue type must match between the recipient and the donor. Still, in any case, with the current scientific progress, incompatibility is one of the things that can be overcome through additional medical treatments after the transplant of the kidneys, which reduces the sensitivity of the immune system and reduce the risk of rejecting the transplanted kidney. Still, if it is impossible to reconcile between the living and the recipient, the living donor can participate in the organ exchange program.

Benefits of kidney transplantation from a living donor

  • Spend less time waiting, and thus less chance of complications.
  • Avoid continuing to wash the kidneys.
  • The survival rate is better in the long and short term.
  • The process is speedy once approval is obtained from both parties.

A kidney transplant from a deceased donor

  • Kidney transplantation from a deceased donor refers to taking a kidney from a recently deceased person with a relative's consent. Or through a card from the donor himself so that their kidney used to work in the affected person's body.
  • The deceased donor's college is kept in the snow or connected to a dedicated device by which oxygen and nutrients delivered to it before it is transplanted into the recipient.
  • It is sufficient to have only one kidney in the body to function in purifying blood from impurities. This process is the best option for people with kidney failure or people who need dialysis for life.

Preventive kidney transplant

Preventive kidney transplant, kidney transplant surgery occurs before the patient is exposed to a deterioration of his health and the original kidney function and may need a dialysis process to replace the kidneys' normal filtration function.

Moreover, Preventive kidney transplant is mostly done for people who dialysis (dialysis) because they have lost their kidneys working usually and cannot clean the blood from impurities.

Some factors control preventive kidney transplant, including:

  • Kidney function level.
  • General patient health.
  • The presence of any chronic medical conditions may affect the success of the kidney transplant.
  • The kidney is available from the donor.
  • The patient's ability to adhere to the instructions prescribed by the specialist.

Advantages of preventive kidney transplant

  • Reducing the risk of the college rejecting the donor.
  • Improving healing rates.
  • Improve the quality and lifestyle of the patient.
  • Therapeutic costs are lower than continuous dialysis.
  • Eliminate the restrictions that were related to dialysis in the diet, as well as eliminate health complications from dialysis.

Artificial kidney transplant

An artificial kidney transplant is one of the alternative options that resorted to in a chronic lack of kidney donation from a living or dead person. Artificial kidney advantage of continuous blood filtration, which may reduce the side effects of the failure of the original kidney to work.

It is worth noting that dialysis works to get rid of blood from impurities and purify it completely even from the nutrients it contains; for this, with time, the dialysis becomes more toxic.

Kidney transplantation for children

  • Children who suffer from kidney failure are more complicated than adults because the kidneys' inability to work may lead to developmental delays in the child, along with acute anemia and an increase in the level of phosphates in the body, with a decrease in calcium, which may result in osteoporosis.
  • Kidney transplant for children is based on blood purification at a rate of 10 millimeters per minute. If this process completed, the child will improve his health and nutritional development.
  • Doctors prefer that kidney transplants performed for children who are less than 10 kg in weight and do not suffer from mental retardation or have congenital disabilities because the kidney transplant is a very costly operation, in which the state bears a large part of its costs.
  • Studies confirm that kidney transplants' success rate in children is better than in adults and adults because the kidney transplant process depends on technology on the child's age. The child is more than 30 kilograms, and the operation performed through the lower abdomen.
  • After completing the child's kidney transplant, the child observed in the hospital. The kidneys and blood salts are assessed, vital signs and blood pressure confirmed, and the child isn't discharged from the hospital until full recovery.

Risks of a kidney transplant

A kidney transplant may result in some health risks, which are:

  • Risks associated with surgeries, such as exposure to bleeding, infection, or blood clots.
  • Exposure to urinary tract infection.
  • Long-term possibility of diabetes.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Increased risk of infectious diseases or tumors due to the immunosuppressive medications that the patient is taking so that the body does not reject the new kidney.

Reasons for the body's rejection of the kidneys

The body's rejection of the donor's kidney may occur between 8 and 10% in the first year. In the event of irregularities in the medications or taking them in doses different from the required treatment. Or in case of blood incompatibility between the donor and the recipient of the kidney, and in the case of different antigens in the tissues between the recipient and the donor.

Kidney transplant success rate

The kidney transplant process has spread widely in all countries of the world. The kidney transplants' success rate is excellent, reaching 95% if the donor is alive and was from the patient's relatives. Still, if the donor deceased, the proportion is about 80%.

Home care after a kidney transplant

The specialized doctor asks the patient to follow the advice after the kidney transplant he must implement to avoid any possible complications from occurring, as follows:

  • Take care to perform the required tests before performing the transplant periodically.
  • The regularity in taking the specialist's medications is because they help to reconcile the immune system with the kidneys so that the new immune system does not reject the new kidney.
  • Refrain from smoking and drinking alcohol permanently because these factors significantly reduce the new college life and increase cancer risk.
  • The need to follow a healthy diet.
  • Do not do violent physical activities until after you fully recover after the operation.
  • Avoid contact with people who have any diseases that may transmitted through infection, such as the common cold and others.
  • Paying attention to personal hygiene as much as possible, by taking good care of washing hands with soap and water, especially after going to the toilet or before eating.
  • It is necessary to follow up with the specialist when the patient feels any severe pain, interruption, and aphasia.
  • Sex should never used until the stent has removed from the ureter and the wound has healed.

Forbidden food after a kidney transplant

Some foods forbidden to eat for those who have cultivated the kidneys; expired or rotten foods, dairy products (such as pasteurized milk and foods made from milk such as cheese and yogurt), and some fruits and vegetables (such as grapefruit, pomegranate juice, raw fruits, raw vegetables), and salads, Non-canned juices.

Pregnancy after a kidney transplant

If the woman wants to become pregnant after a kidney transplant, she must wait at least one year after the operation, with the need to follow up with the specialist doctor to inform her of the plan required to deal with her kidneys at present and determine the medications that will taken during pregnancy.

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Education: Southampton University Medical School, Southampton UK Surgical Registrar, Senior Registrar (Genel-Gastrointestinal Cerrahi, MS Degree) (1993-1998) General Surgery, Ankara Numune Teaching & Research Hospital, Ankara Turkey, (1989-1993) AnkaRead More
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