Hernia in children (Pediatric Hernias)

Hernia in children

Hernia in children is most common in Babies, especially preemies, and kids can be born with them.

A hernia is generally known as a protrusion of a portion of the contents found in the abdomen. Such as the intestine, stomach, or adipose tissue.

The hernia seeps through one of the weak areas of the abdomen, either the navel, the sides of the navel, the lower belly, or the inguinal canal, and appears the prominent part in the form of swelling or a tumor, known by the nickname "hernia." We will detail in our article to child hernia.

What types of hernia in children?

Different types of hernia can affect male or female children, and this is represented by:

  • Inguinal hernia: This type is the most common type of hernia in children, and it occurs as a result of weakness in the abdominal muscles, where part of the intestine emerges as a bulge. This type of hernia affects males more than females.
  • Umbilical hernia: that hernia appears in the form of swelling at the navel area as a result of the emergence of fatty tissue, or one of the small intestine parts. The reason for this is a weakness in the abdominal muscles, and this type of hernia is common in children.
  • Diaphragm hernia: It is a protrusion of some organs or internal tissues in the abdomen, and rises and protrudes through one of the openings in the pilgrim veil. It appears prominent in the chest area, and often this type of hernia affects infants, due to the failure of the diaphragm muscle to grow completely.
  • Abdominal hernia: The emergence of this type of hernia in the lateral areas of the abdomen and below the navel.

The former types are most common in children, and other types rarely occur in children, such as:

  • Muscle hernia: is one of the types of hernia that rarely affects children. It occurs as a result of the emergence of one of the tissues in the abdominal muscles, and it can happen in any other muscle area.
  • Upper Central Hernia: This occurrence occurs in the area between the navel and lower abdomen, where some of the abdominal fat tissue comes out.
  • Gastric hernia: This type is associated with the emergence of a portion of the stomach high. Including pressure on the thoracic region and protrusion that occurs from the opening of the diaphragm. The main symptom of this type of hernia is the presence of heartburn.
  • Surgical hernia: appears as a result of the emergence of part of the abdominal organs or fatty tissue from one of the surgical incisions that were recently incised in one of the operations, and the occurrence occurs before the wound healing period completely.

Cases with phenotypic symptoms similar to hernias

  • Cryptorchidism: It is a term that transfers one of the testicles between the groin area and the scrotum, and sometimes causes tumors.
  • Hydrocele: It is a water grouping around the testes in the scrotum, and this causes swelling. Often the hydrocele disappears without treatment after a year has passed since the birth of the child. If the doctor is disturbed in what the child has a hernia or a hydrocele, then it can be known through an ultrasound machine or a CT scan.

Inguinal hernia in children

  • This hernia arises as a result of the emergence of a part of the intestine, or adipose tissue from the weakened abdominal wall, in the inguinal canal. It causes more severe pain when lifting the body or bending or coughing, and inguinal hernia in children is not considered a severe disease, except that the complications that the child suffers often require surgical intervention to end this problem.
  • The inguinal tunnel, or the syphilitic duct, or the inguinal canal, is a cavity below the anterior abdominal wall. The spermatic cord passes through it in the male, and the uterine ligament gives in to the female.

What are the general symptoms of an inguinal hernia?

General symptoms of inguinal hernia are:

  • The presence of swelling and pain in the testicles and this symptom occurs when a part of the intestine protrudes in the area of ​​the hernia and travels to the scrotum.
  • A rise in temperature.
  • Feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen.
  • Inability to defecate naturally.
  • Feeling sick or vomiting.
  • Pain when gases are removed from the abdomen.
  • Feeling pain and burning in the hernia area.
  • There is swelling on one side of the pubic area, and this situation becomes more evident when standing up.

What are the symptoms of inguinal hernia in male infants?

There are various symptoms of inguinal hernia in male infants, and we will explain them below:

  • Symptoms appear in the form of hiccups when defecating, severe crying with a lack of appetite in the child, and nervousness over the norm, and for children who are over a year old, hernias appear evident. Especially when standing for an extended period, or when coughing, during grief during the need, and in the next phases. After an inguinal hernia worsens, this results in an interruption of blood from the tissue trapped in the hernia, and this becomes a severe degree.

What are the symptoms of inguinal hernia in female infants?

Symptoms of inguinal hernia in female infants are:

  • The emergence of one or both ovaries in the inguinal hernia region, may lead to an ovarian sprain. In the absence of early treatment, this can lead to loss of the ovary or ovaries, and then the inability to have children.
  • Severe redness with heartburn and pain in the inguinal hernia in female infants.
  • Occlusion in the part of the intestine that is located in the hernia region and may occur in 20% of cases of inguinal hernia in female infants.

What are the causes of inguinal hernia in children?

There are several reasons for the occurrence of inguinal hernia in children, and this is as follows:

  • Chronic sneezing and coughing.
  • The presence of weakness in the lower wall of the abdomen.
  • The presence of constant pressure on the abdominal muscles.

What risk factors can increase your chances of developing an inguinal hernia?

The risk factors that present an opportunity for an inguinal hernia to occur are:

  • Appendectomy: Removing the appendix leads to a higher chance of developing an inguinal hernia.
  • Age group: Inguinal hernia can be more common for people over 50.
  • Obesity: Being overweight increases the possibility of an inguinal hernia.
  • Obstructive pulmonary disease: Obstructive pulmonary disease leads to increased opportunities for an inguinal hernia.
  • Gender: Males are 1-8 more likely to develop an inguinal hernia than females.
  • Genetic factors: Among the causes of inguinal hernia in children are genetic factors in the event of disease in the parents.
  • Persistent constipation: Constant constipation leads to weakness in the abdominal muscles, and hence the possibility of inguinal hernia in children.

What are the complications that can occur due to inguinal hernia in children?

In children, inguinal hernia causes a variety of complications, and we will explain it as follows:

  • Squeeze the tissues that surround the hernia, and sometimes this can lead to swelling and pain in the scrotum in males.
  • An inguinal hernia may expose the intestine to damage to one of its parts due to the interruption of blood from the tissue trapped in the inguinal region.
  • Sometimes inguinal hernia causes a blockage in the intestine, and hence the inability to release gases or defecate naturally.

What is the way to diagnose inguinal hernia in children?

  • Clinical examination: Where the doctor performs a clinical examination of the child or girl and makes sure that the inguinal region is prominent.
  • Ultrasound: The doctor can use an ultrasound machine, over the abdominal area, and examine the hernia region.
  • Magnetic resonance or CT scan: If the doctor wants to obtain more accurate and stereoscopic images, MRI or CT scan can be used.

What is the nature of inguinal hernia surgery in children?

Various therapeutic medications exist to treat inguinal hernia, but surgical intervention is the ideal solution to get rid of the disease:

Open surgery

  • The doctor uses total anesthesia when performing inguinal hernia surgery in children, to sleep during the period of the operation without feeling any pain, and the doctor creates an incision above the groin area and then pushes the migratory tissue to its natural place inside the abdomen again.
  • After that, the doctor sews the wound with an artificial network to strengthen the abdominal wall and heal the hernia. At a later stage, the doctor closes the wound with regular stitches or staples, and the recovery period lasts for three weeks.


  • Hernias can be performed in children through the use of a medical endoscope, and this is the preferred method, which is used extensively in that period and requires anesthesia of the child altogether. Then the doctor makes tiny holes in the child's abdomen and then amplifies the lower area of ​​the child's abdomen using gas to facilitate the process of seeing organs in the pelvis.
  • The doctor uses a tiny wire that is attached to a camera and passes it in one of the holes that I make. Then he inserted precision tools through the other holes, and he follows what happens on a stereoscopic screen, where the hernia is processed automatically.
  • Some defects in the use of the endoscope in the treatment of inguinal hernia in children. Moreover, some studies have shown the possibility of the return of hernia again after a while. Some scars appear on the skin from the cracks that the doctor makes to insert the wire and tools used in the process. Still, for endoscopic surgery, a significant advantage is the speed of recovery.
  • It is worth noting that the endoscopy option is ideal in the case of a hernia located on either side of the inguinal or pubic region, in addition to not causing longitudinal incisions in children as it happens in traditional surgery. The endoscopy option is ideal for adult patients who performed the inguinal hernia and returned the disease; not to expose the body to surgical incisions again, and at the same time, this method can eliminate the inguinal hernia that occurs for the second time, and permanently.

What are the complications of inguinal hernia surgery in children?

The majority of complications from inguinal hernia surgery in children are limited and controllable. They are:

  • The pain is in place of the operation, due to the wound, and painkillers overcome this.
  • Swelling or inflammation occurs in the process area, and this is treated with antibiotics.
  • In a limited number of cases, there is a possibility of the inguinal hernia returning.

What are the ways to prevent inguinal hernia in general?

Inguinal hernia can prevented by following these instructions:

  • Maintaining the ideal weight: A healthy weight helps prevent an inguinal hernia.
  • Avoid smoking: One of the negative factors is smoking, with its various classifications, due to its effect on the lungs. And the possibility of a chronic cough or sneezing that leads to inguinal hernia.
  • Eat healthy meals: It is essential to eat fiber-containing meals to help avoid constipation that may lead to an inguinal hernia.
  • Avoid lifting heavyweights: Individuals need to avoid lifting heavy weights that exceed their capabilities, as this may lead to an inguinal hernia.

Umbilical hernia: hernia of children

  • An umbilical hernia defined in children as a protrusion and expansion in the umbilical area in the abdomen. And this appears in the form of visible indentation in the navel. That may be the result of internal tissue expansion, or the appearance of one of the small intestine parts, and the size of the hernia increases when coughing or pressure on the abdomen area and this occurs Pain. The surgical solution can be ideal in this case in children.
  • Hernia arises in children at the position of the belly button or navel, and hernia often heals on its own.
  • Some studies indicate that approximately 90% of children with umbilical hernias recover within three years. In the event of a secret opening between 1-2 cm, due to the hernia closed on its own. That 85% of those with an umbilical hernia doesn't suffer from any symptoms or complications.

What is the difference between the umbilical hernia of children and the umbilical hernia?

Umbilical hernia in children occurs in the area of ​​the umbilicus itself. As for the umbilical hernia, it occurs in the abdomen line on one side of the navel in adults.

What are the symptoms of umbilical hernia in children?

  • The symptoms of an umbilical hernia are the emergence of the umbilical region.
  • May be accompanied by some pain and discomfort in the abdominal area. As well as the presence of difficulty and difficulty when defecating, with increased pain when coughing or sneezing.

What are the causes of umbilical hernia in children?

There are several reasons for the occurrence of umbilical hernia in children. And we will explain this as follows:

  • Congenital malformation: Congenital anomalies are among the leading causes of umbilical hernia in children.
  • Abdominal pressure: Stress on the abdominal muscles may be one of the reasons for disease occurring as a result of coughing or hiccups.

What are the risk factors for the chances of an umbilical hernia?

The risk factors for umbilical hernia infection are as follows:

  • Ethnicity: The possibility of developing umbilical hernia increases in the brown race compared to the white one. In a study that included a sample of the brown races. It found that about 92% of the babies born. 90% of pregnant women, 49% of adults exposed to an umbilical hernia. It found that the incidence of complications In future stages, came as follows: 23% of children, 15% of pregnant women. And 8% of adult men.
  • Other factors: Males exposed to umbilical hernia compared to females. As well as genetic factors. Their role in the occurrence of the disease, in addition to environmental factors.

What is the way to diagnose umbilical hernia in children?

In children, umbilical hernias can diagnosed by clinical phenotypic examination, ultrasound, or by computer tomography.

What are the ways to treat umbilical hernia in children?

Doctors do not perform any surgical procedure five years before the child's age. Given that most cases of umbilical hernia in children recover on their own. Still, if the situation continues as is and complications exist; this requires medical intervention, whether through laparoscopic surgery or open surgery.

ovarian sprain

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