Adenoma (non-cancerous or benign tumor)


Adenoma is a non-cancerous tumor or benign tumor that may affect various organs in the human body.

There are many glands in the body, and like any other area that has adenoma, which may be benign or malignant, the difference between them is that a benign tumor cannot proliferate very quickly and spread outside the gland to other parts or organs.

The tumor may be malignant and spread quickly outside the gland and reaches other places in the body. Among the adenoma are tumors of the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, parotid, and different other tumors related to the glands.

What is thyroid Adenoma?

  • Cancer of the thyroid tumors occurs in thyroid cells shaped like butterflies and are located at the base of the neck just below Adam's apple. The thyroid produces hormones that regulate heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight.
  • Thyroid cancer may not cause any symptoms initially, but as it grows, it can cause neck pain and swelling.
  • There are several types of thyroid cancer, some of them grow very slowly, and others can be very aggressive; in almost all cases, the treatment can be cured.
  • Some doctors believe that thyroid cancer rates seem to increase because new technology allows them to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found in the past.

Benign thyroid Adenoma

A thyroid adenoma is an abnormal growth of the cells specific to the thyroid gland. Still, this tumor doesn’t cause any spread outside of the thyroid gland, but benign thyroid tumors and their treatment are based on several shapes and changes depending on the size of the tumor, the patient's age, or health condition.

Cancer of the thyroid Adenoma

Four main types of thyroid cancer act differently:

Firstly, Papillary thyroid cancer

  • It is the most common type, which accounts for between 80 and 90% of cases. It is found as a single node of the thyroid gland. Many cases can be associated with metastasis in the lymph node; its incidence is higher in women.

Secondly, Follicular thyroid cancer

  • it represents between 5 and 10% of thyroid tumors. Its behavior is more aggressive than papillary cell cancer. As it is more common in women, it isn't easy to distinguish it from the normal thyroid gland. One-half of the thyroid gland is removed and analyzed, it can be known as a tumor.

In addition to the Myeloid thyroid cancer

  • It represents about 5% of thyroid tumors, and endocrine tumors are derived from the C cells that produce calcitonin. This hormone is responsible for regulating calcium levels in the blood. Symptoms occur due to the secretion of calcitonin and other substances; this can lead to Diarrhea and redness of the face, and can sometimes produce a more complex picture of the endocrine gland called Cushing's syndrome.

Finally the Anaplastic thyroid cancer

  • It is the rarer subtype and is associated with poor prognosis and rapid development. It is the most aggressive of all thyroid tumors. And occurs in 5-10% of all thyroid tumors, and less than 10% of the treated patients live in the long term and appears between the two decades. Seven and eight years of age, which is extremely rare in children under the age of twenty. More common in women is clinically distinguished by a rapidly growing mass in the front neck region accompanied by compression symptoms in the upper digestive tracts, which leads to neck pain, dyskinesia, and dysphagia due to the invasion of these metastatic tumor Structures. This invasion limits the role of surgery, which is usually palliative.

Symptoms of thyroid tumors (Adenoma)

There are many thyroid tumors and their symptoms, and thyroid cancer can cause any of the following signs or symptoms:

  • A lump in the neck that overgrows sometimes.
  • Neck swelling.
  • Pain in the front of the neck that sometimes reaches the ears.
  • Hoarseness or other vocal changes persist.
  • Food swallowing problems.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Persistent coughing.
  • If you experience any of these signs or symptoms, consult your doctor immediately. Many of these symptoms can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions, or even by other cancers in the neck area.
  • Thyroid tumors are generally benign; however, if you suffer from any of these symptoms, you must see your doctor so that the cause can be identified, and treatment can be provided if necessary.

Treatment of thyroid tumors 

There are many methods of treatment for thyroid tumors, and their treatment can applied depending on the type of tumor and the stage of the disease. The treatment of thyroid tumors distinguished mainly by two scenarios:

Topical therapy of adenoma

1. Surgery: It is the main treatment for thyroid cancer. It is vital to perform an ultrasound of the thyroid gland to plan the surgical procedure that will performed. According to the extension, several techniques can implemented:

Complete thyroidectomy or complete removal of the thyroid gland: It is the treatment indicated in most cases; especially in the presence of weak predictive factors (tumor size less than 4 cm) age less than 45 years, the presence of metastases in the lymph node).

Thyroidectomy or removal of the lobe: can be indicated in unilateral cases or with good predictive factors.

2. Radioactive iodine treatment: the thyroid gland absorbs iodine from the body; this technique attempts to determine which cell in the body picks up the iodine and then destroys it. The radioactive iodine capsule is given to destroy the remaining thyroid tissue and any remaining tumor, and these cells are monitored by tomography.

3. Topical disease treatment is referred to as radiotherapy only.

4. TSH hormone therapy: Thyroid hormone is used after surgery for two purposes: on the one hand, for alternative meanings to preserve thyroid function. The second purpose is to reduce the secretion of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) that can act as a catalyst for the growth and spread of neoplastic cells.

Dealing with non-treatable tumors

1. Chemotherapy: The use of chemicals to destroy malignant cells is one of the most common treatments used in all types of cancer, yet its benefit limited in thyroid cancer.

2. Radiation therapy: its usefulness in thyroid cancer limited, as radioactive iodine given in tumors, and it acts as an essential analgesic for excellent control of pain.

3. Targeted therapies: Several targeted therapies have approved in recent years to treat thyroid tumors.

4. Immunotherapy is a reality in treating many tumors, especially thyroid tumors.

Are thyroid tumors dangerous?

The answer to this question differs depending on several factors, the most important of which is the patient's health status, the type of tumor whether benign or malignant.

In addition to the extent of its spread, and the condition of the lymph nodes and their impact on the tumor in the case of cancerous tumors, and from here we must realize that dealing with all a condition that has its circumstances, and is possible to determine if the condition is treatable or not.

Thyroid tumor risk factors

A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chances of developing cancer, and different types of cancer have various risk factors. Some risk factors such as smoking or malnutrition can change. Other factors such as age or family history cannot be changed, and the following thyroid tumor risks :

  • Radiation exposure in the head and neck area increases the incidence of thyroid cancer.
  • Women are more likely to have thyroid tumors than men.
  • Family history has a significant role in the incidence of thyroid tumors, and this is due to genetic disorders carried from one person to another within the family, which caused this type of tumor.

Complications of thyroid tumors 

Thyroid tumor surgery has many complications, including:

  • Bleeding, edema wound healing problems, and air blockage can also seen after all operations after thyroidectomy.
  • In addition to problems such as brachial plexus injuries and sore throat.
  • You can also see metabolic complications for this surgery.
  • The most severe complication is bleeding after surgery, usually in the first 3-4 hours.
  • Anatomical complications are most feared (0-5%).
  • Nervousness in the voice usually depends on the pressure of the edema at the site of surgery and expected to recover within 6-8 weeks.
  • It may cause an imbalance in the parathyroid gland.

What are pituitary tumors?

Pituitary tumors are abnormal growth that develops in the pituitary gland, which is a rare and benign tumor of the pituitary gland in the skull, and the percentage of pituitary tumors is about 15 percent of all brain tumors.

The disease can occur at any age but usually diagnosed between the ages of 35 and 45, and some pituitary tumors generate many hormones. Moreover, Some pituitary tumors can cause lower levels of hormones, and those tumors found in the tissues surrounding the gland and don't spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of pituitary tumors (Adenoma)

  • Not all pituitary tumors cause symptoms.
  • Pituitary tumors and their symptoms divided into two types: hormone-secreting tumors and hormone-secreting tumors. Pituitary tumors that produce hormones can cause different signs and symptoms depending on the hormone they produce, and signs and symptoms of non-hormonal pituitary tumors are related to their growth and pressure exerted on the parts of the other.

Signs and symptoms of pressure from the pituitary tumor may be:

  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Vision loss due to pressure on the optic nerves.

Symptoms related to changes in hormone levels (for hormone-secreting tumors):

  • Pituitary tumors cause excess hormone secretion symptoms to include prolactinoma (causing abnormal coffee secretion from the breast) and increased secretion of corticotropin, which causes weight gain, high blood pressure, or diabetes.

Moreover, Different types of pituitary tumors cause signs of a lack of hormones, such as:

  • Vomiting, and nausea.
  • Weakness.
  • Allergy to cold.
  • The absence or reduction of recurring menstrual periods.
  • Sexual dysfunction.
  • The increased amount of urine.
  • Unintended weight loss or gain.

Treating pituitary tumors (Adenoma)

  • Many pituitary tumors do not require treatment, but pituitary tumors and their treatment depend on the type of tumor, its size, how well it develops in the brain, and the age and general health of the factors as well.
  • The treatment decision depends on a team of experts, which may include neurosurgery, an endocrinologist, and a radiation oncologist.
  • Doctors generally use surgery, radiotherapy, and medications, either alone or together, to treat pituitary tumors and return the hormone to its normal levels.

Complications of pituitary tumors

  • In general, pituitary tumors don’t grow or spread widely. However, it can cause the risks of pituitary tumors to your health, and may cause the following:
  • Changes in vision: the pituitary tumor can put pressure on the optic nerves and loss of full vision.
  • Permanent hormonal deficiency: Having or removing a pituitary tumor can permanently alter the supply of hormones that you may need to replace with hormonal medications.
  • A rare, but complicated, complication of a pituitary tumor is a stroke that occurs when there is sudden bleeding in the tumor.
  • Causing severe dehydration and kidney failure due to increased secretion of the hormone water leaving the body ADH.

What are adrenal tumors?

The adrenal glands are small glands located at the top of each kidney, and these glands produce the essential hormones for life, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps to respond to pressure and has many other vital functions, and adrenal tumors are a rare type of cancer that makes cancerous cells (malignant) in the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland.

  • When cells of the adrenal cortex become cancerous cells. They can produce a large amount of hormone, causing various symptoms such as high blood pressure, weak bones, and diabetes.
  • If a tumor affects the production of male or female sex hormones, changes in the body may occur. Such as thickening of the voice, facial hair growth, swelling of the genitals, or chest swelling.

Although there are tumors that produce hormones. Many adrenal cortical cancers do not increase hormone production, and some of the symptoms are:

  • Abdominal pain.
  • Weight loss without diet.
  • Weakness.
  • If the tumor caused by hormones, there may be symptoms or signs of excess hormones.

Adrenal tumors (Adenoma) and their treatment

There are three main types of cancer treatment in the adrenal cortex:

  • Surgery (tumor removal): Surgery will remove the tumor through surgery. The adrenal gland may removed, and cancerous tissue around the adrenal glands or lymph nodes in the area may also removed.
  • Chemotherapy (the use of chemicals to destroy cancer cells): Chemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy given through the mouth or injections into the body. The injection will given through a needle inserted into a vein or muscle, and chemotherapy called "treatment" Systemic, "as the drug penetrates the bloodstream spreads throughout the body and kills cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy (using high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells): Radiation therapy uses high-intensity energy rays to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. In the case of adrenal cortical cancer, radiation therapy is usually provided by a device that projects strong rays into the kidneys' area.

Cancer treatment according to the stages of the disease

Adrenal tumors and their treatment depend on the extent of the cancerous tumor, and treatment plans include:

  • The first stage of adrenal cancer: usually, the treatment that will carried out at this stage is surgery to remove the cancerous tumor.
  • The second stage of adrenal cancer: At this stage, the cancer tumor usually removed, and clinical trials exploring new treatment options.
  • The third stage of adrenal cancer: One of the following treatments can performed right now:

1. Tumor removal surgery, lymph nodes in the tumor area can also removed.

2. Radiotherapy.

3. Chemotherapy, if the tumor's extent can measured by X-rays or if the tumor produces hormones.

  • The fourth stage of adrenal cancer: You can now do one of the following:

1. Chemotherapy: New drugs tested for chemotherapy.

2. Radiotherapy for the bones of the body in which the cancerous tumor has spread.

3. Surgery to remove the cancerous tumor from the various areas of the body where it has spread.

  • The stage of recurrence of the disease: treatment depends on many factors, including the location of relapse and treatment provided in the past. In some cases, removing some of the increases in surgery may reduce the symptoms of the disease.

What are parotid tumors?

  • Parotid tumors are the most common type of salivary gland tumor. They account for between 80 and 85 percent of all salivary gland tumors. While most parotid tumors aren't cancerous (benign), but the parotid glands can also develop cancerous tumors.
  • The parotid glands located on either side of the face just in front of the ears are the three largest groups of major salivary glands. And their function is to produce saliva to help chew and digest food.
  • Tumors in the salivary glands can have different properties. You may or may not notice a tumor or swelling in the upper jaw area if you have a parotid tumor. It may also affect the facial nerves and cause pain, numbness, burning sensation, and loss of movement in the face if the tumor is malignant.

Symptoms of adrenal tumors

Adrenal tumors and their symptoms vary from person to person, and these include:

  • Swelling in the mouth, cheek, chin, or neck.
  • Pain in your mouth not far from the cheek, chin, ear, or neck.
  • The difference between the size of the left and right sides of your face or neck.
  • Numbness in part of your face.
  • Muscle weakness on one side of your face.
  • Difficulty opening your mouth wide.
  • Secretions from the ear.
  • Swallowing problem.

Treating parotid tumors (Adenoma)

  • The basis for treating and treating parotid gland tumors is surgery.
  • In polyps, the tumor removed, and sometimes the salivary gland removed just as it is in the salivary gland under the skin.
  • Broader surgeries performed in malignant tumors, and the entire gland can removed.
  • If the patient has facial paralysis before surgery. The facial nerve can also removed with the gland. Or if the tumor appears to have invaded the facial nerve. The affected part of the facial nerve can removed, and if this part can repaired.
  • In some malignancies, lymph nodes in the neck can removed.
  • Moreover, in some cases, radiotherapy is necessary after surgery.
  • In malignant tumors with skin injury, the skin can also removed. And some reconstruction methods may applied.
  • Unfortunately, there is no effective chemotherapy drug for treating fully parotid or salivary gland tumors.

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